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MS- Excel-2007

Getting Started
Getting started with Excel 2007 you will notice that there are many similar features to previous versions.  You will also notice that there are many new features that you’ll be able to utilize.  There are three features that you should remember as you work within Excel 2007:  the Microsoft Office Button, the Quick Access Toolbar, and the Ribbon.  The function of these features will be more fully explored below.

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A spreadsheet is an electronic document that stores various types of data.  There are vertical columns and horizontal rows.  A cell is where the column and row intersect.  A cell can contain data and can be used in calculations of data within the spreadsheet.  An Excel spreadsheet can contain workbooks and worksheets.  The workbook is the holder for related worksheets.

Microsoft Office Button
The Microsoft Office Button performs many of the functions that were located in the File menu of older versions of Excel.  This button allows you to create a new workbook, Open an existing workbook, save and save as, print, send, or close.

The ribbon is the panel at the top portion of the document   It has seven tabs:  Home, Insert, Page Layouts, Formulas, Data, Review, and View.  Each tab is divided into groups.  The groups are logical collections of features designed to perform function that you will utilize in developing or editing your Excel spreadsheets.  
 Commonly utilized features are displayed on the Ribbon.  To view additional features within each group, click the arrow at the bottom right corner of each group.
Home:  Clipboard, Fonts, Alignment, Number, Styles, Cells, Editing
Insert: Tables, Illustrations, Charts, Links, Text
Page Layouts: Themes, Page Setup, Scale to Fit, Sheet Options, Arrange
Formulas: Function Library, Defined Names, Formula Auditing, Calculation
Data:  Get External Data, Connections, Sort & Filter, Data Tools, Outline
Review:  Proofing, Comments, Changes
View: Workbook Views, Show/Hide, Zoom, Window, Macros

Quick Access Toolbar
The quick access toolbar is a customizable toolbar that contains commands that you may want to use.  You can place the quick access toolbar above or below the ribbon.  To change the location of the quick access toolbar, click on the arrow at the end of the toolbar and click Show Below the Ribbon.
You can also add items to the quick access toolbar.  Right click on any item in the Office Button or the Ribbon and click Add to Quick Access Toolbar and a shortcut will be added.

Mini Toolbar
A new feature in Office 2007 is the Mini Toolbar.  This is a floating toolbar that is displayed when you select text or right-click text.  It displays common formatting tools, such as Bold, Italics, Fonts, Font Size and Font Color.

Working With Workbook
Create a Workbook
To create a new Workbook:
Click the Microsoft Office Toolbar
Click New
Choose Blank Document 
If you want to create a new document from a template, explore the templates and choose one that fits your needs.

Save a Workbook
When you save a workbook, you have two choices: Save or Save As.
To save a document:
Click the Microsoft Office Button
Click Save
You may need to use the Save As feature when you need to save a workbook under a different name or to save it for earlier versions of Excel.  Remember that older versions of Excel will not be able to open an Excel 2007 worksheet unless you save it as an Excel 97-2003 Format. To use the Save As feature:
Click the Microsoft Office Button
Click Save As
Type in the name for the Workbook
In the Save as Type box, choose Excel 97-2003 Workbook

Open a Workbook
To open an existing workbook:
Click the Microsoft Office Button
Click Open
Browse to the workbook
Click the title of the workbook
Click Open

Entering Data
There are different ways to enter data in Excel:  in an active cell or in the formula bar.
To enter data in an active cell:
Click in the cell where you want the data
Begin typing
To enter data into the formula bar
Click the cell where you would like the data
Place the cursor in the Formula Bar
Type in the data

Manipulating Data
Excel allows you to move, copy, and paste cells and cell content through cutting and pasting and copying and pasting.
Select Data
To select a cell or data to be copied or cut:
Click the cell

Click and drag the cursor to select many cells in a range

Select a Row or Column
To select a row or column click on the row or column header.

Copy and Paste
To copy and paste data:
Select the cell(s) that you wish to copy 
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Copy
Select the cell(s) where you would like to copy the data
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Paste

Cut and Paste
To cut and paste data:
Select the cell(s) that you wish to copy 
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Cut
Select the cell(s) where you would like to copy the data
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Paste

Undo and Redo
To undo or redo your most recent actions:
On the Quick Access Toolbar
Click Undo or Redo

Auto Fill
The Auto Fill feature fills cell data or series of data in a worksheet into a selected range of cells. If you want the same data copied into the other cells, you only need to complete one cell.  If you want to have a series of data (for example, days of the week) fill in the first two cells in the series and then use the auto fill feature. To use the Auto Fill feature:
Click the Fill Handle
Drag the Fill Handle to complete the cells

Modifying a Worksheet
Insert Cells, Rows, and Columns
To insert cells, rows, and columns in Excel:
Place the cursor in the row below where you want the new row, or in the column to the left of where you want the new column
Click the Insert button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click the appropriate choice: Cell, Row,  or Column
Delete Cells, Rows and Columns
To delete cells, rows, and columns:
Place the cursor in the cell, row, or column that you want to delete
Click the Delete button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click the appropriate choice:  Cell, Row, or Column

Find and Replace 
To find data or find and replace data:
Click the Find & Select button on the Editing group of the Home tab
Choose Find or Replace
Complete the Find What text box
Click on Options for more search options

Go To Command
The Go To command takes you to a specific cell either by cell reference (the Column Letter and the Row Number) or cell name.  
Click the Find & Select button on the Editing group of the Home tab
Click Go To
Spell Check
To check the spelling:
On the Review tab click the Spelling button

Performing Calculations
Excel Formulas
A formula is a set of mathematical instructions that can be used in Excel to perform calculations.  Formals are started in the formula box with an = sign.
There are many elements to and excel formula.
References:  The cell or range of cells that you want to use in your calculation
Operators:  Symbols (+, -, *, /, etc.) that specify the calculation to be performed
Constants:  Numbers or text values that do not change
Functions:  Predefined formulas in Excel
To create a basic formula in Excel:
Select the cell for the formula
Type = (the equal sign) and the formula 
Click Enter

Calculate with Functions
A function is a built in formula in Excel.  A function has a name and arguments (the mathematical function) in parentheses.  Common functions in Excel:
Sum:  Adds all cells in the argument
Average:  Calculates the average of the cells in the argument
Min:  Finds the minimum value 
Max:  Finds the maximum value
Count:  Finds the number of cells that contain a numerical value within a range of the argument

To calculate a function:
Click the cell where you want the function applied
Click the Insert Function button
Choose the function
Click OK
Complete the Number 1 box with the first cell in the range that you want calculated
Complete the Number 2 box with the last cell in the range that you want calculated

Function Library
The function library is a large group of functions on the Formula Tab of the Ribbon.  These functions include:
AutoSum:  Easily calculates the sum of a range
Recently Used:  All recently used functions
Financial: Accrued interest, cash flow return rates and additional financial functions
Logical: And, If, True, False, etc.
Text: Text based functions
Date & Time: Functions calculated on date and time
Math & Trig:  Mathematical Functions

Relative, Absolute and Mixed References
Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as "A1") is called relative referencing. When a formula contains relative referencing and it is copied from one cell to another, Excel does not create an exact copy of the formula. It will change cell addresses relative to the row and column they are moved to. For example, if a simple addition formula in cell C1 "=(A1+B1)" is copied to cell C2, the formula would change to "=(A2+B2)" to reflect the new row. To prevent this change, cells must be called by absolute referencing and this is accomplished by placing dollar signs "$" within the cell addresses in the formula. Continuing the previous example, the formula in cell C1 would read "=($A$1+$B$1)" if the value of cell C2 should be the sum of cells A1 and B1. Both the column and row of both cells are absolute and will not change when copied. Mixed referencing can also be used where only the row OR column fixed. For example, in the formula "=(A$1+$B2)", the row of cell A1 is fixed and the column of cell B2 is fixed.

Linking Worksheets
You may want to use the value from a cell in another worksheet within the same workbook in a formula. For example, the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet and cell A2 in the second worksheet can be added using the format "sheetname!celladdress". The formula for this example would be "=A1+Sheet2!A2" where the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet is added to the value of cell A2 in the worksheet named "Sheet2".

Sort and Filter
Sorting and Filtering allow you to manipulate data in a worksheet based on given set of criteria.
Basic Sorts
To execute a basic descending or ascending sort based on one column:
Highlight the cells that will be sorted
Click the Sort & Filter button on the Home tab
Click the Sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button

Custom Sorts
To sort on the basis of more than one column:
Click the Sort & Filter button on the Home tab
Choose which column you want to sort by first
Click Add Level
Choose the next column you want to sort 
Click OK

Filtering allows you to display only data that meets certain criteria. To filter:
Click the column or columns that contain the data you wish to filter
On the Home tab, click on Sort & Filter
Click  Filter button
Click the Arrow at the bottom of the first cell
Click the Text Filter 
Click the Words you wish to Filter
To clear the filter click the Sort & Filter button
Click Clear

Working With Charts
Charts allow you to present information contained in the worksheet in a graphic format. Excel offers many types of charts including: Column, Line, Pie, Bar, Area, Scatter and more.  To view the charts available click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon.

Create a Chart
To create a chart:
Select the cells that contain the data you want to use in the chart
Click the Insert tab on the Ribbon
Click the type of Chart you want to create

Modify a Chart
Once you have created a chart you can do several things to modify the chart.  
To move the chart:
Click the Chart and Drag it another location on the same worksheet, or
Click the Move Chart button on the Design tab
Choose the desired location (either a new sheet or a current sheet in the workbook)

To change the data included in the chart:
Click the Chart
Click the Select Data button on the Design tab

To reverse which data are displayed in the rows and columns:
Click the Chart
Click the Switch Row/Column button on the Design tab

To modify the labels and titles:
Click the Chart
On the Layout tab, click the Chart Title or the Data Labels button
Change the Title and click Enter

Chart Tools
The Chart Tools appear on the Ribbon when you click on the chart.  The tools are located on three tabs:  Design, Layout, and Format.  

Within the Design tab you can control the chart type, layout, styles, and location.
Within the Layout tab you can control inserting pictures, shapes and text boxes, labels, axes, background, and analysis.

Within the Format tab you can modify shape styles, word styles and size of the chart.

Copy a Chart to Word
Select the chart
Click Copy on the Home tab
Go to the Word document where you want the chart located
Click Paste on the Home tab

Format Worksheet
Convert Text to Columns
Sometimes you will want to split data in one cell into two or more cells.  You can do this easily by utilizing the Convert Text to Columns Wizard.
Highlight the column in which you wish to split the data
Click the Text to Columns button on the Data tab
Click Delimited if you have a comma or tab separating the data, or click fixed widths to set the data separation at a specific size.

Modify Fonts
Modifying fonts in Excel will allow you to emphasize titles and headings. To modify a font:
Select the cell or cells that you would like the font applied
On the Font group on the Home tab, choose the font type, size, bold, italics, underline, or color

Format Cells Dialog Box
In Excel, you can also apply specific formatting to a cell. To apply formatting to a cell or group of cells:
Select the cell or cells that will have the formatting 
Click the Dialog Box arrow on the Alignment group of the Home tab
There are several tabs on this dialog box that allow you to modify properties of the cell or cells. 
Number:  Allows for the display of different number types and decimal places
Alignment:  Allows for the horizontal and vertical alignment of text, wrap text, shrink text, merge cells and the direction of the text.
Font:  Allows for control of font, font style, size, color, and additional features
Border:  Border styles and colors
Fill:  Cell fill colors and styles
Add Borders and Colors to Cells
Borders and colors can be added to cells manually or through the use of styles.  To add borders manually:
Click the Borders drop down menu on the Font group of the Home tab
Choose the appropriate border

To apply colors manually:
Click the Fill drop down menu on the Font group of the Home tab
Choose the appropriate color

To apply borders and colors using styles:
Click Cell Styles on the Home tab
Choose a style or click New Cell Style

Change Column Width and Row Height
To change the width of a column or the height of a row:
Click the Format button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Manually adjust the height and width by clicking Row Height or Column Width
To use AutoFit click AutoFit Row Height or AutoFit Column Width

Hide or Unhide Rows or Columns
To hide or unhide rows or columns:
Select the row or column you wish to hide or unhide
Click the Format button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click Hide & Unhide

Merge Cells
To merge cells select the cells you want to merge and click the Merge & Center button on the Alignment group of the Home tab.  The four choices for merging cells are:
Merge & Center: Combines the cells and centers the contents in the new, larger cell
Merge Across: Combines the cells across columns without centering data
Merge Cells: Combines the cells in a range without centering
Unmerge Cells: Splits the cell that has been merged

Align Cell Contents
To align cell contents, click the cell or cells you want to align and click on the options within the Alignment group on the Home tab.  There are several options for alignment of cell contents:
Top Align:  Aligns text to the top of the cell
Middle Align:  Aligns text between the top and bottom of the cell
Bottom Align:  Aligns text to the bottom of the cell
Align Text Left:  Aligns text to the left of the cell
Center:  Centers the text from left to right in the cell
Align Text Right:  Aligns text to the right of the cell
Decrease Indent:  Decreases the indent between the left border and the text
Increase Indent:  Increase the indent between the left border and the text
Orientation:  Rotate the text diagonally or vertically

Developing a Workbook
Format Worksheet Tab
You can rename a worksheet or change the color of the tabs to meet your needs.
To rename a worksheet:
Open the sheet to be renamed
Click the Format button on the Home tab
Click Rename sheet
Type in a new name
Press Enter
To change the color of a worksheet tab:
Open the sheet to be renamed
Click the Format button on the Home tab
Click Tab Color
Click the color
Reposition Worksheets in a Workbook
To move worksheets in a workbook:
Open the workbook that contains the sheets you want to rearrange
Click and hold the worksheet tab that will be moved until an arrow appears in the left corner of the sheet
Drag the worksheet to the desired location
Insert and Delete Worksheets
To insert a worksheet
Open the workbook
Click the Insert button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click Insert Sheet
To delete a worksheet
Open the workbook
Click the Delete button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click Delete Sheet
Copy and Paste Worksheets:
To copy and paste a worksheet:
Click the tab of the worksheet to be copied
Right click and choose Move or Copy
Choose the desired position of the sheet 
Click the check box next to Create a Copy
Click OK

Page Properties and Printing
Set Print Titles
The print titles function allows you to repeat the column and row headings at the beginning of each new page to make reading a multiple page sheet easier to read when printed.  To Print Titles:
Click the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon
Click the Print Titles button
In the Print Titles section, click the box to select the rows/columns to be repeated
Select the row or column
Click the Select Row/Column Button
Click OK
Create a Header or Footer
To create a header or footer:
Click the Header & Footer button on the Insert tab
This will display the Header & Footer Design Tools Tab
To switch between the Header and Footer, click the Go to Header or Go to Footer button
To insert text, enter the text in the header or footer
To enter preprogrammed data such as page numbers, date, time, file name or sheet name, click the appropriate button
To change the location of data, click the desired cell 
Set Page Margins
To set the page margins:
Click the Margins button on the Page Layout tab
Select one of the give choices, or
Click Custom Margins
Complete the boxes to set margins
Click Ok
Change Page Orientation
To change the page orientation from portrait to landscape:
Click the Orientation button on the Page Layout tab
Choose Portrait or Landscape
Set Page Breaks
You can manually set up page breaks in a worksheet for ease of reading when the sheet is printed.  To set a page break:
Click the Breaks button on the Page Layout tab
Click Insert Page Break
Print a Range
There may be times when you only want to print a portion of a worksheet.  This is easily done through the Print Range function.  To print a range:
Select the area to be printed
Click the Print Area button on the Page Layout tab
Click Select Print Area
Split a Worksheet
You can split a worksheet into multiple resizable panes for easier viewing of parts of a worksheet. To split a worksheet:
Select any cell in center of the worksheet you want to split
Click the Split button on the View tab
Notice the split in the screen, you can manipulate each part separately
Freeze Rows and Columns
You can select a particular portion of a worksheet to stay static while you work on other parts of the sheet.  This is accomplished through the Freeze Rows and Columns Function.  To Freeze a row or column:
Click the Freeze Panes button on the View tab
Either select a section to be frozen or click the defaults of top row or left column
To unfreeze, click the Freeze Panes button
Click Unfreeze
Hide Worksheets
To hide a worksheet:
Select the tab of the sheet you wish to hide
Right-click on the tab 
Click Hide
To unhide a worksheet:
Right-click on any worksheet tab
Click Unhide
Choose the worksheet to unhide

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